Biological CO2 fixation also depends on the tolerance of selected strains to high temperatures and the amount of CO2 present in flue gas, together with SOx and NOx. Potential uses of microalgal biomass after sequestration could include biodiesel production, fodder for livestock, production of colorants and vitamins.
This review summarizes commonly employed microalgal species as well as the physiological pathway involved in the biochemistry of CO2 fixation. It also presents an outlook on microalgal propagation systems for CO2 sequestration as well as a summary on the life cycle analysis of the process.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology (2014)
The use of microalgae for the purpose of CO2 sequestration is a unique environmental technology. Microalgae are promising candidates for CO2 mitigation, which aids in combating GHG-related environmental impacts and has the added benefit of producing renewable biomass. In comparison with terrestrial plants, microalgae are capable of fixing CO2 at a rate several times higher than plants owing to their high photosynthetic efficiencies.
Microalgal cultivation requires the development of suitable reactors with features such as high S/V ratio, mixing, mass transfer, scalability and ease of operation. Airlift bioreactors that distribute light through optical fibers could be a possible solution (this increases the ratio between the illumination surface and reactor volume).